I've spent a few hours trying to capture some of the basic principles of data flow and execution in my new favourite spare-time project AnalyzerBeans. Here's the results, that you will also find available in the API Documentation.
The first image shows the relationship analyzers, transformers and the data that they consume:
The second image shows a "close-up" of a row of data. Some of that values originate from the actual datastore, while some of the values may be virtual, generated by a chain of transformers: